|2Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research (ACECR), West Azarbayjan Branch, Urmia, Iran; Ph.D. Student, Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
| Background and objectives: Hippophae rhamnoides L. (sea buckthorn) is a deciduous shrub or tree in the Elaeagnaceae family. Sea buckthorn is one of the native species of the Turani regions of Iran, with limited and scattered habitats in Gachsar, Haraz, Arasbaran, Khoy, and Alamut. An old miraculous plant, it is highly regarded for its richness in bioactive and nutritional substances. Hippophae rhamnoides is one of the valuable precursor species in terms of nitrogen fixation for the soil. It is a storage shrub resistant to cold, drought, and low-cover environments. Sea buckthorn contains nearly 200 nutritional and bioactive compounds. This plant's fruits are rich in lipids, carotenoids, ascorbic acid, and flavonoids. The purpose of the present study, considering the high medicinal and ecological importance of the Sea buckthorn plant and the few studies in Iran, especially in the field of phytochemical compounds of this valuable plant, is to introduce the Sea buckthorn plant, its phytochemical compounds, and some of their uses in the pharmaceutical and food industries.
Materials and methods: This article contains scientific papers published between 2001 and 2022 from Google Scholar, Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed.
Results: All parts of sea buckthorn (fruits, leaves, stems, branches, roots, and thorns) have been traditionally used in medicine and food supplements. Sea buckthorn leaves, fruits, and oils are rich in macro and microelements, vitamins A, C, E, lipids, carotenoids, amino acids, unsaturated fatty acids, and phenols. In recent years, there have been several reports on the medicinal activities of sea buckthorn, including its anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities and its ability to protect the heart and blood vessels. The oil obtained from the seeds and fruit includes bioactive compounds such as palmitoleic acid (omega 7), a part of skin lipids, and stimulates epidermis repair and healing wounds. Flavonol glycosides are one of the most abundant phenolic compounds in sea buckthorn. Flavonoids are antioxidants in sea buckthorn that prevent blood platelet accumulation and cancer cell spread. They improve blood circulation and reduce inflammation. As an antioxidant, antimicrobial, and other natural additive, sea buckthorn is used in various food products. In addition, it is used in diverse forms, such as oil, dried powder, fruit juice, pills, drinks, fruit, and tea.
Conclusion: Besides its high nutritional value as a food, the genus Hippophae has several economic advantages as a raw material for cosmetics, food, pharmaceutical industries, and environmental protection. Due to its high tolerance to cold, drought, salinity, and alkalinity and the ability to fix nitrogen in the soil, it is an ideal product for protecting soil and water and windbreaks on marginal lands prone to soil erosion.