|Rotavirus (RV) is the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in early childhood worldwide. Gastroenteritis is a preventable disease by the vaccine, and vigorous efforts were made to produce attenuated oral rotavirus vaccines. In recent years, despite the existence of three types of live attenuated rotavirus vaccines, several countries, such as China and Vietnam, have intended to produce indigenous vaccines based on rotavirus serotypes circulating among their population. In this study, the immunogenicity of homemade human-bovine reassortant RV candidate vaccine was tested in an animal model. Rabbits were randomly distributed into eight experimental groups with three animals per group. Afterward, three rabbits in each test group designated as P1, P2, and P3 were experimentally inoculated with the 106, 107, and 108 tissue culture infectious dose 50 (TCID50) of the reassortant virus, respectively. The N1 group received the reassortant rotavirus vaccine containing 107 TCID50+zinc. The N2, N3, and N4 groups received rotavirus vaccine strain, RV4 human rotavirus, and bovine rotavirus strain, respectively, and the control group received phosphate-buffered saline. It is noteworthy that three rabbits have been included in each group. The IgA total antibody titer was measured and evaluated by non-parametric Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The antibody titer produced in the studied groups did not significantly differ. The candidate vaccine showed immunogenicity, protectivity, stability, and safety. The findings of this study indicated a critical role of IgA production, which can induce immunity against a gastroenteritis viral pathogen. Regardless of purification, candidate reassortant vaccine and cell adapted animal strains could be used as a vaccine candidate for production.|
- Pichichero ME. Challenges in vaccination of neonates, infants and young children. Vaccine. 2014;32(31):3886-94.
- Desselberger U. Rotaviruses. Virus Res. 2014;190:75-96.
- Wu W, Orr-Burks N, Karpilow J, Tripp RA. Development of improved vaccine cell lines against rotavirus. Sci Data. 2017;4:170021.
- McDonald SM, Patton JT. Assortment and packaging of the segmented rotavirus genome. Trends Microbiol. 2011;19(3):136-44.
- Afchangi A, Jalilvand S, Mohajel N, Marashi SM, Shoja Z. Rotavirus VP6 as a potential vaccine candidate. Rev Med Virol. 2019;29(2):e2027.
- Doro R, Farkas SL, Martella V, Banyai K. Zoonotic transmission of rotavirus: surveillance and control. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2015;13(11):1337-50.
- Crawford SE, Ramani S, Tate JE, Parashar UD, Svensson L, Hagbom M, et al. Rotavirus infection. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2017;3:17083.
- Banyai K, Laszlo B, Duque J, Steele AD, Nelson EA, Gentsch JR, et al. Systematic review of regional and temporal trends in global rotavirus strain diversity in the pre rotavirus vaccine era: insights for understanding the impact of rotavirus vaccination programs. Vaccine. 2012;30(1):122-30.
- Kung YH, Chi H, Liu CC, Huang YC, Huang YC, Wu FT, et al. Hospital-based surveillance of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis and rotavirus strains in young Taiwanese children. J Formos Med Assoc. 2020;119(7):1158-66.
- Jalilvand S, Roohvand F, Arashkia A, Shoja Z. Update on Epidemiology and Circulating Genotypes of Rotavirus in Iranian Children With Severe Diarrhea: 1986-2015. Int J Travel Med Glob Health. 2018;6(1):7-10.
- Burke RM, Tate JE, Kirkwood CD, Steele AD, Parashar UD. Current and new rotavirus vaccines. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2019;32(5):435-44.
- Lopez AL, Raguindin PF, Silva MWT. Prospects for rotavirus vaccine introduction in the Philippines: Bridging the available evidence into immunization policy. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2019;15(6):1260-4.
- Naik SP, Zade JK, Sabale RN, Pisal SS, Menon R, Bankar SG, et al. Stability of heat stable, live attenuated Rotavirus vaccine (ROTASIIL(R)). Vaccine. 2017;35(22):2962-9.
- O'Ryan M. Rotavirus Vaccines: a story of success with challenges ahead. F1000Res. 2017;6:1517.
- Kirkwood CD, Ma LF, Carey ME, Steele AD. The rotavirus vaccine development pipeline. Vaccine. 2019;37(50):7328-35.
- Dang DA, Nguyen VT, Vu DT, Nguyen TH, Nguyen DM, Yuhuan W, et al. A dose-escalation safety and immunogenicity study of a new live attenuated human rotavirus vaccine (Rotavin-M1) in Vietnamese children. Vaccine. 2012;30 Suppl 1:A114-21.
- Bai Z, Chen D, Shen S. Selection and characterization of strain LLR-85 for oral rotavirus live vaccine. Chin J Biol. 1994;7(2):49-52.
- Zafari E, Soleimanjahi H, Mohammadi A, Teimoori A, Mahravani H. Molecular and biological characterization of the human-bovine rotavirus-based reassortant rotavirus. Microb Pathog. 2018;121:65-9.
- Doro R, Laszlo B, Martella V, Leshem E, Gentsch J, Parashar U, et al. Review of global rotavirus strain prevalence data from six years post vaccine licensure surveillance: is there evidence of strain selection from vaccine pressure? Infect Genet Evol. 2014;28:446-61.
- Reed LJ, Muench H. A simple method of estimating fifty per cent endpoints12. Am J Epidemiol. 1938;27(3):493-7.
- Esteves PJ, Abrantes J, Baldauf HM, BenMohamed L, Chen Y, Christensen N, et al. The wide utility of rabbits as models of human diseases. Exp Mol Med. 2018;50(5):1-10.
- Djoko KY, Ong CL, Walker MJ, McEwan AG. The Role of Copper and Zinc Toxicity in Innate Immune Defense against Bacterial Pathogens. J Biol Chem. 2015;290(31):18954-61.
- Shiomi M. Rabbit as a Model for the Study of Human Diseases. In: Houdebine L-M, Fan J, editors. Rabbit Biotechnology. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2009. p. 49-63.
- Chang JT, Li X, Liu HJ, Yu L. Ovine rotavirus strain LLR-85-based bovine rotavirus candidate vaccines: construction, characterization and immunogenicity evaluation. Vet Microbiol. 2010;146(1-2):35-43.
- Blutt SE, Miller AD, Salmon SL, Metzger DW, Conner ME. IgA is important for clearance and critical for protection from rotavirus infection. Mucosal Immunol. 2012;5(6):712-9.