|Infertility is defined as the inability of couples to conceive after 1 year of regular unprotected intercourse, which affects 10-15% of couples. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of Interleukin-17 (IL-17) and growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) on three groups of infertile males, including control, azoospermia, and oligozoospermia. In total, this study was performed on 93 participants, consisting of 18, 65, and 10 subjects in the Azoospermia, oligozoospermia, and control groups, respectively. The mean plasma levels of IL-17 in the azoospermia and oligozoospermia groups were 21.317±3.605 and 15.101±2.416 ng/l, respectively, which were significantly higher than that in the control group (5.392±1.731 ng/l). Furthermore, the mean plasma levels of GDF9 in the azoospermia and oligozoospermia groups were 3.299±1.051 and 6.2603±2.621 ng/l, respectively, which was significantly higher than that in the control group (12.807±2.170 ng/l). One-way analysis of variance and least significant difference post-hoc test were performed to assess significant differences among means. R-squared measures how well the linear regression model fits the data. It can be interpreted as the proportion of variance of the outcome Y explained by the linear regression model. R-squared is a number between 0 and 1. In non-obstructive forms of severe oligozoospermia and azoospermia, like the case in the current study, intracytoplasmic sperm injection is suggested by using testicular biopsy for spermatozoa extraction, if viable spermatozoa are present.|
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