|Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver, and hepatitis B is a common and dangerous liver disease caused by the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) of the DNA hepadnavirus family. In 2010, the World Health Organization (WHO) considered hepatitis B infection a major health problem worldwide. One way of transmitting this disease is a transmission from a carrier mother to a child. This study aimed to investigate the presence of HBV surface antigen in pregnant women referred to Kasra Al-Aini Hospital in Cairo. This study was a cross-sectional descriptive study that was performed on pregnant women. One thousand pregnant women were selected with their consent to participate in this study, and after preparing a blood sample, an Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay kit, used for Hepatitis B Virus surface antigen detection, a questionnaire containing questions about socio-individual characteristics. Among 1000 samples, 13 samples were equal to 1.3% had HBsAg positive. No significant relationship was found between the prevalence of HBs Ag in the city and rural location, education, occupation, age, and history of abortion in pregnant women. History of dialysis in pregnant women, tattooing, and type of job of the pregnant woman was not considered risk factors. However, injection drug users, history of previous surgery, and blood transfusion can be considered suspicious factors (P≤0.05). The prevalence of hepatitis B infection in pregnant women in Cairo was 1.3, which is lower than the study statistics in most parts of the world. However, to evaluate this amount more accurately, there is a need to conduct a study with a higher sample size.|
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